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Detoxification and Drainage

A Theoretical and Practical Approach

The Physiology of Detoxification


       In the previous chapter we saw that the body is esposed to a wide variety toxins present in the air, water, soil and food. The body has several inherent defense mechanisms and membrane barriers to prevent the absorption and distribution of the toxin when the intoxication has occurred. Once inside the body, the internal defense system, or Basic Bioregulatory System will be mobilized in order to eliminate the toxin or at least try to compensate for it.


       In this chapter, We will look at the way the body deals with these toxins. Before a toxin can have a detrimental effect on the body, it needs to reach the target organ or cell. In principle four steps are necessary for this:

- Absorption

- Transport

- Metabolism

- Distribution and storage

- Elimination


       Toxicokinetics studies the absorption, distribution, elimination, metabolism and/or clearance that take place in the body after exposure to the toxin. Toxicodynamics on the other hand studies the biochemical and physiological effects of drugs and toxicants and determines their mechanism of action. Toxicokinetics can also be seen in the diagram below.

       1 Absorption

       Toxins can enter the body through all the surfaces which are in contact with the outside world. These comprise the skin, the mucous membranes and also the gastrointestinal tract. In general, the absorption over the respiratory mucosa is the quickest, whereas it is the slowest over the dermal route. The overall entry depends on the amount of toxins present, but also on the saturability of the transport process.


       The mucosal surfaces have several barriers which will prevent toxins from entering the body, such as a mucosal barrier, the physical presence of symbiotic bacteria as well as the so-called tight junction. The skin also has barriers in the form of a certain level of pH, etc.


       2 Transport

       Once the toxicant is absorbed into the body it moves around in two ways, either by bulk transfer via the blood or lymph, but also locally through diffusional transfer over short distances. The path which a toxin takes after absorption is illustrated in Fig.II,2.


       During absorption, distribution and elimination, a toxin will encounter various cell membranes before interacting with the target tissue. These membrane barriers will differ from relatively thick areas of the skin to relatively thin lung membranes, in all cases though the composition is relatively similar.


       The cell membrane can be seen as a lipid matrix. If contains both phospholipids (hydrophobic) portions as well as hydrophilic heads. Intra- and extracellular proteins transverse the membrane.

       This will differ from organ to organ. The myelin in the brain consists of 100% lipid bilayer whereas mitochondria have only a 40% lipid bilayer. This, of course has implication for the distribution of fat soluble toxins. Depending on the fat solubility of the toxin, it will thus transverse the cell membrane. Many of the proteins which tranverse the membrane are active in transport of toxins over the cell membranes.

       The distribution of the absorbed toxin will depend on various factors, such as physiological factors, but also the phyusiochemincal properties of the drug. This process is thus a REVERSIBLE movement of the toxicant between the blood and tissues and between the extracellular and intracellular compartment. The velocity at which this movement is reversible becomes important when we address the mobilization and drainage of toxins later on.

       Factors which can complicate the distribution of a toxin can be the following:

- Perfusion of the organ

          The well perfused tissues include the liver, kidneys and brain; whereas the low perfused tissues include the bone and fat tissue where there is slow elimination from these tissues.

- Protein Binding

          There also may be significant protein binding which could affect the delivery of the drug to the tissues and vice versa. Especially binding of toxins to the matrix structures may trap these toxins there for years and prevent elimination.

       Protein binding also plays a very important role in the transport of toxins. There are many plasma proteins involved in such a transport, but mostly involved are albumin, alpha-acid-glycoprotein, the lipoproteins, and globulins.

       The lipoproteins, such as HDL,LDL and VLDL are very important here, as so many toxins are lipophilic, and therefore they will carry a number of toxins. Iron and copper will again be carried by the metal binding globulins, transferring and cereluplasmin.


       3 Distribution and Storage

       Plasma protein binding is not selective and toxints can thus compete with each other and even with endogenous substances for binding. Covalent binding to the protein forms a minor part, but the dissociation I extremely difficult and the carrier molecule is changed, and may eventually play a role in carcinogenesis.

       Noncovalent binding is more common. The toxin can dissociate easier from this bond. However, in some cases the bond may be so strong that the toxin remains bound for weeks, months or years. Certain metals have high association constants and their dissociation is extremely slow.

       If the affinity for an organ is large, the toxin will accumulate or form a depot for years. In general, lipid insoluble toxicants stay in the plasma and interstitial fluids, while lipid soluble contaminants reach all compartments, and may accumulate in fat.

       Some toxins have specific affinity for certain tissues. Tetracyclines have a high affinity for the calcium containing tissues, which is seen in the discoloration of teeth if it is given under the age of 14 years. Similarly, the anti-malarial, chloroquine has an affinity for the melanin, and can be taken up by tissues like the retina, causin a retinitis. This drug is often used in lupus and other connective tissue diseases, which makes an ophthalmic check up every six months mandatory.

       Bone will also concentrate certain toxicants such as lead where a sudden loss of bone can lead to acute release of the toxin and have dire consequences, especially after menopause when there may be a sudden bone loss.

       This will be discussed later when we look at the indeal rates of detoxification.

       Lipophilic pesticides, such as the organochlorines and PCB’s can be expected to accumulate in fat tissues.

       The affinity of metals to SH groups have also been addressed in the previous chapters.

       The binding of these metals to the numerous thiol groups in the extracellular matrix is of special concern.

       Certain areas will be naturally less penetrable to toxins. The brain, which is protected by the blood brain barrier, is such an example. Disease processes such as meningitis and other inflammatory or infective processes can disrupt this barrier and thus cause toxins to enter the brain tissue.

       Other tissue blood barriers include the prostate/blood barrier and the testis/blood barrier.

       Unfortunately, other than what is generally believed, the placenta is a poor barrier and the fetus is thus exposed to all the toxins to which the mother is exposed. This has been seen in fat tissue biopsies which were performed on newborns and found numerous toxins such as PCB’s, dioxin and others in the tissues. We need thus to assume in today’s environmental pollution, that our newborns are already contaminated with toxins.


       4 Metabolism of Toxins

       One of the most important determinants of the persistence of toxins in the body is the extent to which they can be metabolized and excreted.

       Several families of metabolic enzymes are active in metabolism of endogenous and exogenous toxins.

       These include one of the most important, the P450 system, but also the flavin containing monooxidases(FMO’s), the alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases, amine oxidases cyclooxygenases, reductases, hydrolases and the conjugating enzymes such as the methyltransferases as well as the glutathione transferases to name a few.

       Most of the metabolism takes place in the liver, and as most of the toxins entering the body are lipophilic, they need to become water soluble for excretion. After entrance to the liver and other organs, xenobiotics may undergo two phases of metabolism.

       4.1 Phase I Reactions

       Phase I metabolism involves mainly the CYP(P450) system, the FMO’s and the hydrolases. Following the addition of a polar group, conjugating enzymes typically add more constituents, such as sugars, sulfatesor amino acids which make the compound more water soluble.

       In this process, however sometimes more toxic intermediate metabolites are formed, these then will have to be detoxified again. These intermediate metabolites are likely to react with nudear parts of macromolecules unless they are further detoxified. An example is the breakdown of alcohol to acetaldehyde, which is much more toxic that the alcohol.

       The CYP system or P450 plays a very important role in the phase I reactions. The CYP’s which constitutes the carbon monoxide-binding pigment of the liver microsomes are heme proteins. A nomenclature has been developed for the different types and isoforms.

       Although mammals are known to have 18 CYP families, only three are responsible for xenobiotic metabolism. The remaining are involved in steroid hormone production. They are classified according to the gene, subfamily and lastly the isoform (Arabic numeral, letter, Arabic numeral).

       Thus CYP 3 A 4 is responsible for the metabolism of many drugs as well as endogenous toxins and exogenous toxins.

       Its activity can also be influenced by a host of drugs and chemicals, and it can either be induced, which will have the result that certain drugs are broken down too quickly, e.g., warfarin, whereas grapefruit juice in large quantities is known in fact to damage this system irrevocably and thus may lead to an accumulation of drugs.

       The Phase I detoxifying pathway takes care of environmental toxins such as pesticides, pollutants and food additives as well as drugs and alcohol. The end products of uur own metabolism are also processed here for excretion. Fat soluble toxins are changed by way of oxidation, reduction and hydrolysis to make them more water soluble for excretion via the bile and the kidney.

       It is important to note that these enzymes need certain co-factors to fulfill their action. These are trace elements, vitamins, amino acids and substances like NADH.

       Phase I produces significant amounts of free radicals during this detoxification processs, and if the antioxidant status of the patient is not adequate tissues damage may occur if the P450 is overloaded, or induced. Some substances, such as caffeine, alcohol, certain drugs, dioxin and organophosphates (used as pesticides), and paint fumes can induce this pathway. Sometimes intermediate substances like the acetaldehyde formed during the metabolism of certain toxins, like alcohol, can be more toxic to the body than the original substance. Certain people, called fast acetylators, will then be more prone to damage of the liver, as the toxin is fast metabolized to this dangerous intermediate, and then the process is slow again. These individuals are at higher risk for liver damage during ingestion of toxins which will use the alcohol dehydrogenase pathway to be detoxified, for example when paracetamol overdose occurs.

       4.2 Phase II Reactions

       The Phase II pathway or conjugation pathway uses substances rich in sulfhydryl groups to metabolize toxins. A number of these substances, like cysteine and taurine as well as glutathione which are formed from glycine, glutamine and cysteine under influence of a selenium dependent enzyme, also act as free radical scavengers and heavy metal chelators. During conjugation of toxins they are lost to the body forever, as they are excreted with the toxin, whereas as free radicals they can be regenerated. Some substances will only use phase I or phase II to be detoxified, others will use both. It is thus clear, that if the phase II pathway is overloaded, the free radical scavenging ability will be given up in favor of the conjugation function and further damage to the liver parenchyma may occur. Also if the patient is deficient in selenium for instance, glutathione production will be impaired, with the resultant of toxicity and free radical damage.

       5 Elimination

       After the toxins have gone through these two phases, they are ready to be eliminated. However, if the intermediary toxin is not broken down, or the toxin load is too high there will be bioaccumulation of the toxin.

       The ability to detoxify and eliminate toxins is paramount to the maintenance of health in an organism.

       For unicellular organisms a simple process of diffusion is enough to eliminate toxins, however, multicellular organisms, especially if there has been an increase in complexity, needs to find other ways to eliminate toxins.

       With an increase in complexity, organisms have developed an increase in size, a decrease in surface area to body mass ratio, compartmentalization of cells and organs, as well as an increase in lipid content. Together with the fact that organisms neeed to protect themselves from the environment with barriers such as scales and skin, means that there is less possibility for toxins to diffuse out of the body. This was solved, by developing specialized methods of metabolism for toxins and specialized routes of elimination. We have thus major and minor elimination routes.

       The major routes involve the liver, the kidneys, the mucous membranes and the lungs as well as the skin, whilst the minor routes involve the saliva, sweat, milk, hair, and secretion from reproductive organs.

       To eliminate the toxin, it must go through the reverse route as was described in section II from the place of storage back to the external environment.

       Chemicals ard transported from the place of storage mainly via the blood stream. As the circulatory system leans itself toward the transport of water soluble substances, the more lipophilic substances ard, the less likely they are to freely diffuse into the blood and thus the mobilization of these toxins from their place of storage is more difficult. The same process as was discussed in section II, where binding of toxins to carrier proteins and lipoproteins is the way these toxins will enter the blood steam.

       The toxins are thus transported back to the organs of elimination, but if these organs are dysfunctional, overloaded or damaged, the toxins cannot be excreted. This means that such toxins will circulate further in the blood stream and through diffusion enter some compartments again, e.g. a fat soluble toxin may now be stored in the brain, with dire consequences. The stimulation of toxins out of their compartments should thus be a slow and careful process.

       Here we distinguish two groups of compartments:

       1 The rapid-exchange system

       In these compartment, tissue concentration of toxicant is similar to that of the blood

       2 The slow-exchange system

       In these compartments, tissue concentration of toxicant is higher than in blood due to binding and accumulation-adipose tissue, skeleton and kidneys can temporarily retain some toxins, e.g. arsenic and zinc.

       The important fact is that Detoxification and Drainage should carry on so long till the slow exchange system is given a chance to give up all the toxins. The organs involved in the Detoxification and Drainage of the toxins will be discussed in the next section.



- Toxins have to cross several membranes in the body to be absorbed,      and to    eventually be stored, or eliminated via the organs of elimination.

- Toxins follow simple kinetics, and observe the diffusion over semi-permeable membranes till a steady state is achieved on both side of the membrane.

- These basic kinetics are different for toxins who has a high association co-efficient with proteins and cellular structures, be it in the blood or in the organ of storage.

- These kinetics affect both the storage and the mobilization of toxins in and out of these compartments and needs to form the basis on which the practical Detoxification and Dralinage is executed.

- Two groups of compartments can be distinguished, depending on the perfusion of the organ and the amount of toxin bound to protein.

                     - The rapid-exchange system.

                        In these compartments, tissue concentration of toxin is similar

   to that of the blood.

- The slow-exchange system

In these compartments tissue concentration of toxin is higher than in blood due to binding and accumulation.

- Many toxins are metabolized before they can get excreted.

   One of the main purposes of this is to render fat soluble

   toxins water soluble for excretion in the bile and kidneys.

- The P450 system of enzymes plays a major role here,

   especially in the liver, where it comprises the phase I

   reactions. This is augmented by the phase II reactions.

- Organs are at danger during the act of Detoxification and

   Drainage, due to the high concentration of toxins moving

   through the organ at the time, and through the generation of

   free radicals during the detoxification process.

- Support of theses organs is thus of utmost importance during

   detoxification and the elimination of the toxin.

The Organs of Detoxification and Elimination

       As was seen in the previous chapter, many organs and tissues are involved in the absorption, the transport, the metabolism, the storage and the delimination of toxins. These highly complex processes require special properties of the organ to fulfill this function. Often, the organ itself may be endangered by disease due to the excretion, storage and movement of toxins through it.

       We shall now consider these organs in more depth.

       1 The Liver

       The liver is one of the most important detoxifying and elimination organs in the body, and metabolically the most complex. The liver is a major organ of chemical elimination in that it takes up chemicals from blood, metabolizes chemicals, and ensures the biliary and renal secretion of toxins. The liver detoxifies a large array of external and internal toxins. It also plays a role in the cholesterol metabolism, glycolysis and gluconeogenesis, providing many of the plasma proteins necessary for carrying hormones, fats and provides clotting factors, to name a few of its numerous functions.

       The principal cell in the liver responsible for the detoxifying action is the hepatocyte which facilitates the two pathways discussed in section II in dealing with mainly fat soluble toxins in order to render them hydrophilic or water soluble.

       We have seen that most toxins reach the organs of elimination via the blood stream. The liver is very well perfused, and gets its blood from two sources the arterial oxygen rich blood which is delivered through the hepatic artery, and the venous blood through the portal vein from which the liver gets all the blood that is shunted from the capillaries of the gut and spleen.

       Hepatocytes are practically bathed in blood as this blood transverses a system of sinusoids. This provides a very large surface for chemicals to easily diffuse into the liver cells or hepatocytes. Due to the high lipophilic character of many of the chemicals which are metabolized by the liver, to be able to enter the water soluble area, they will need carrier proteins. Several intracellular carrier proteins are present in hepatocytes.

       Once inside the hepatocyte the chemical can interface with the phase I and II enzymes to undergo biotranstormation and becom water soluble. A number of these substances then diffuse back into the blood, where they will be transported to the kidneys for elimination.


       2 Excretion in Bile

       These bio-transformed molecules can also diffuse over the membranes of the bile canalilculus, and therefore flow into the bile duct. This is then further delivered with the other constituents to the gallbladder which excretes the bile into the intestine for fecal elimination.

       In many instances we also want to facilitate the drainage of bile. The gallbladder’s primary function is to secrete bile and release it through the cystic duct. This duct joins the hepatic duct from the liver to create the common bile duct, which then empties into the upper part of the small in testion, thus into the duodenum. Bile not only carries away and neutralizes toxins, but it stimulates and aids digestions by emulsifying fats, stimulating peristalsis, and acting as a natural laxative.


       3 Entero-hepatic Circulation

       This is a process whereby already conjugated chemicals which are water soluble is deconjugated by hydrolytic enzymes in the gut, and  then redered lipophilic again, and are once more reabsorbed by the gut. The liver is thus exposed to another round of the same toxin to reprocess it again and again, this increase the retention time for toxic chemicals in the liver, and may increase liver boxicity. Some of these metabolites are more dangerous than their original substance and as we saw above, the P450 is also a source of free radicals which will thus further damage the liver cell.

       It is thus imperative to protect the liver as well during the process of Detoxification and Drainage. This will be further discussed in the section on methods of detoxification.


       4 The Kidneys

       The kidneys are organs specialized in the excretion of numerous water soluble toxins and metabolites, maintaining homeostasis of the organism. The kidneys detoxify

       - Drugs

       - Heavy metals

       - Other toxins

       Each kidney possesses about one million nephrons able to perform excretion. Renal excretion represents a very complex event encompassing three different mechanisms:

       - Glomerular filtration by Bowman’s capsule

       - Active transport in the proximal tubule

       - Passive transport in the distal tubule

       Blood is delivered to the kidneys via the renal artery and about 625 ml of plasma move through the kidneys per minute, and of that 125 ml is filtered through the glomelular membrane. Most of the water is then reabsorbed again in the proximal and distal tubule, so that only approximately 1-2 liters of urine is formed per day.

       Some filtered substances, such as glucose will also be totally reabsorbed, so that in normal conditions there is no glucose in the urine. Other substances, many of which are harmful to the body are filtered, secreted and then minimally reabsorbed. Creatinine is such a substance, and can thus be used to test the efficiency of the kidneys in clearing harmful substances. It accumulates  in the blood when the kidneys are dysfunctional. If the kidneys are damaged through disease or toxins (drugs and chemicals), their ability to excrete drugs is reduced, and in conventional medicine, the dose of drugs in needs to be adjusted accordingly.

       It is important for the urine to be on the alkaline side, as it facilitates the secretion of certain drugs, like barbiturates for instance, and alkaline urine will prevent urinary tract infections.

       The kidneys commonly bear the brunt of chemical toxicity since the nephron tends to concentrate the toxin and thus increase levels of toxic exposure in the tubules.

       The kidneys thus also need protection and support throughout the Detoxification and Drainage stages.


       5 The Matrix and Lymph

       5.1 The Matrix

       This forms the final biophysical layer between the cell and the regulatory organs. This system was largely forgotten since Virchow, a physician who worked in Vienna and a contemporary of Freud, saw a cell through a microscope and postulated that all diseases originated on a cellular level. Another physician working there at the time, Rokitansky, wanted to still bring in the humeral theory, but was largely ignored.

       Pischinger and Heine, two modern researchers, brought this back into balance, and the newer molecular biology texts increasingly recognize the role of the matrix.

       The cell on its own is actually an abstraction. The cell does not come in contact with the blood vessels, nerves, veins and lymph vessels which deliver nutrients and messengers and remove toxins. It relies for this on the biophyusical layer made up of highly polymerized sugar protein complexes called Glycoaminoglycans(GAG’s) like hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulphate and heparin or when they are linked to a protein backbone, they are called proteoglycans(PG’s). This molecular sieve must be crossed by the entire array of metabolic products.

       Sugar protein complexes are phylogenetically considered the best carriers of information. Heine and Pischinger could show that if the matrix is disturbed by a pin prick in one place, the disturbance is communicated to the whole matrix in seconds. This makes it an ideal system through which to give any information to the body. The acupuncture point is an anatomical structure originating in the matrix, a bell like structure, and it offers a wonderful ‘window’ into this system.

       Unfortunately, because of the chemical and electrical charges on the GAG’s and PG’s, they also become the place where toxins are stored for a long time.

       The matrix is also one of the tissues with a slow perfusion, and thus will have pattern of slow turnover. The matrix has its own biorhythm, and is dependent for instance on cortisol and thyroid hormone to be activated. During the early hours of the morning, the body goes into an ebb phase with a low cortisol, and it is during this ebb phase that the matrix will purge itself from toxic materials. Stressed patients, or patients who through a change in their sleepwake cycle have lifted or disturbed the diurnal rhythm of cortisol, will not be able to detoxify, as there may be a ‘misfiring’ between the matrix and the liver. Cortisone in high doses as medication will also disturb the innate rhythm of the body, and result in matrix toxicity. We can see that in patients who has been on cortisone therapy, as the become swollen and puffy in the matrix. Patients who are hypothyroid have been described as having ‘myxoedema’ in the older textbooks. The same swelling will be apparent in the matrix if the matrix biorhythm is disturbed. May toxins are hydrophilic and will draw fluid into the matrix. The result is edema, which we in clinical medi cine see as cyclical edema in females or as cellulite.

       It is clear from the above that it the molecular sieve of the biophysical layer fails, is polluted that there will be distortion of information to and from the cell. If the disturbance is severe enough, cellular disease will ensue.

       Newer molecular biological research shows that the matrix is the site for many messengers which codes for intracellular phenomena, which, if disturbed, can contribute to many disease phenomena, including cancer. (Lukashev ME, Werb Z, 1998)


       5.2 The Lymph System

       Apart from its role in the immune system, the lymph system alse acts as a detoxifying organ and drains most of the toxins from the matrix or connective tissues via the lymph vessels, which finally drain into the superior vena cave. The lymph system is made up of a myriad of little lymph vessels which then aggregate into larger vessels. These larger vessels are interspersed by aggregations of lymphoid tissue, which are made up of immune competent cells. These lymph nodes, as the aggregations are called, really function as super detection centers for antigens, but it is also here whereto sensitized immune cells will migrate in order to procuce millions of similar clones of that sensitized cell. The migration is called “homing” in immunology and the multiplication, cloning. The swelling we see in these lymph nodes during an infection is due to the activation of the immune cascade by these sensitized cells. This will cause an inflammation of the lymph node.

       A major portion of our immune system is located in these lymph aggregations, and in fact the largest part of our immune system is found in the gut lining’s so-called Peyer’s paches. This is the reason why we can manipulate the whole of the immune system by intervening on the level of the gut lining.

       Physiological considerations

       The lymph system is a slow drainage system, and the propulsion of lymph towards the heart is dependent on a number of factors. Firstly, the lymph vessels have no valves, but depend on a sort of negative suction action of the truncal vessels, which is similar to that of an amphibian heart. The lymph flows relatively slowly at a rate of 1-2 ml/min, against a high resistance, whereas the venous flow is rapid at 2-3 ml/min against a low resistance. Two thirds of the body fluid is located in the intracellular space, whilst a third is located in the extra-cellular space. Of this, 75% is in the interstitial space or connective tissue and about 25% circulates as plasma. The lymph and venous flow is responsible for circulation most of the extra-cellular fluid, and the interstitial fluid in particular is drained mainly by the lymph system.

       From the above it is clear that the factors which will control the fluid interchange will be:

      - Oncotic pressure of the plasma and the lymph is determined by the amount of macromolecules such ass protein, and the electrolyte content such as sodium, potassium, etc, in the solution. Solutes exert a certain pressure in any fluid, as they ‘draw water’ so to speak and the more there is of them in a solution, the higher the pressure. When a patient is protein deficient for instance, through malnutrition or disease, we see that there are not enough macremolecules to keep the fluid in the vascular compartment, and the fluid will leak out into the interstitium. The result is that the oncotic pressure in the interstitium will exceed that of the plasma, and again edema will ensue.

       - The hydrostatic pressure is a mechanical pressure, which can be compared to a hose pipe connected to an open tap. The smaller the diameter of the hose pipe, the higher the pressure, the more open the tap is, the higher the pressure, and if there is an obstruction like a kink in the hose, the higher the pressure before the kink, and the lower the pressure after the kink. Fluid always tends to drain from a high-pressure area to a low-pressure area over a semi permeable membrane, which is represented by the venous capillary or the lymph capillary, until the pressure is equal on both sides. Thhus if there is obstruction in the venous system, similar to a kink in the hose, there will be a high pressure in the vein, and the body will try to equalize the pressure between the vein and the interstitium, thus the fluid will also accumulate in the intrerstitium.

       - If there is for instance cardiac failure we see a back pressure into the venous system, and in our hose model above, this will represent a wide open tap, with more pressure in the venous system, and then more fluid in the interstitium.

       -  Lastly if there is an obstruction of the lymph flow, we will see a back pressure in the lymph system and edema will again be the result. We see this in diseases of the lymph vessels like Elephantiasis, where the lymph vessel is scarred by a parasite for instance.

       The lymph system as a detoxifying organ

       The lymph system has a special relationship with the matrix. If is so to say as the only way out for toxins which are stored in the matrix is via the lymph system. It also means that if the matrix is overloaded with toxins as well, as the lymph system has to remove the toxic debris out of the interstitium, and at a certain point will also be clogged with these. The stimulation of lymph flow is thus one of the most important steps to achieve when cleaning  the matrix.


       6 The lungs

       Not only does the mucosa of the respiratory tract plays an important role as a barrier to toxins as was discussed earlier, the lungs are also one of the main points of excretion of gaseous and volatile drugs such as anesthetics and even alcolol. Elimination via the lungs is typical for toxins with high volatility ( solvents). Gases and vapours with low solubility in blood will be quickly eliminated this way, whereas toxins with high blood solubility will be eliminated by other routes.

       Organic solvents absorbed by the GIT or skin are excreted partially by exhaled air in each passage of blood through the lungs, if they have a sufficient vapour pressure. The breathalyzer test used for suspected drunk drivers is based on the fact. The concentration of CO2  in exhaled air is in equilibrium with the CO2 – Hb blood content. Another example is the radioactive gas radon which appears in exhaled air due to the decay of radium accumulated in the skeleton.

       A number of toxins and bacteria are also secreted in the mucous of the respiratory tract, and expectoration is thus welcomed and supported.


       7 The Mucosal Membranes

       Mucosal membranes form the largest part of our bodies in contact with the outside world, and they are therefore very specialized. Amucosal surface is like a micro cosmos in itself, and a good example of all the components of the auto regulatory system active in one organ. With almost 80% of the immune system forming the mucosal associated lymphoid tissue(MALT), some hormones having receptors on the mucosal cells, a full complement of nerves mediated by the autonomic nervous system, an active lymphatic drainage, and the large complement of extra-cellular matrix, the mucosal membrane comprise one of the most important regulatory organs. Not only does it form a very selective barrier with the tight junction in between the epithelial cell and adhesion molecules playing an important role in deciding what will enter the body, mucosal surfaces can also let some of the immune cells, like neutrophils through the tight junction to ingest toxic material in the lumen. It further protects against toxins by secreting chloride and other solutes tnto the lumen which will osmotically draw water in order to wash away the offender, a fact that we see as diarrhea in the gut for instance.

       The integrity of these surfaces is thus of major importance in the defense against toxins.

       The symbiotic gut bacteria also need mentioning here as a barrier function. Not only do they form a passive barrier against toxins coming in contact with the epithelial surface, the also contribute to the defense against toxins by producing certain metabolites which will serve as fuel for the gut lining, and as such will then help the mucosal cell to keep the integrity of the tight junction. However, due to the hydrolytic enzymes produced by them, they can also contribute to the dangerous entero-hepatic circulation mentioned above.


Absorption via gastrointestinal tract

       Toxins can be ingested in the case of accidental swallowing, intake of contaminated food and drinks, or swallowing of particles cleared from the respiratory tract.

       In the case of toxins biotransformed in the liver to less toxic or non-toxic metabolites, ingestion may represent a less dangerous portal of entry. After absorption in the GIT these toxins will be transported by the portal vein to the liver, and there they can be partially detoxified by biotransformation. The active area for absorption in the intestines is about 100 m2.

       Some toxic metal ions use specialized transport systems for essential elements: Thalium, cobalt and manganese use the iron system, while lead appears to use the calcium system.

       Many factors influence the rate of absorption of toxins in various parts of the GIT:

       - Physico-chemical properties of toxins, for example, particle size is important, the smaller the size, the higher the solubility.

       - Quantity of food present in the gut (diluting effect).

       - Residence time in each part of the GIT (from a few minutes in the mouth to one hour in the stomach to many hours in the intestines).

       - The absorption area and absorption capacity of the epithelium.

       - Loca pH, which governs absorption of dissociated toxins; in the acid pH of the stomach, non-dissociated acidic compounds will be more quickly absorbed.

       - Peristalsis (movement of intestines by muscles) and local blood flow.

       - Gastric and intestinal secretions transform toxins into more or less soluble products; bile is an emulsifying agent producing more soluble complexes(hydrotrophy).

       - Combined exposure to other toxins, which can produce synergistic or antagonistic effects in absorption processes.

       - Presence of complexing/chelating agents.

       - The action of micro flora of the gut comprising about 1.5 kg made up of 60 different bacterial species which can perform bio transformation of toxins.

       When we thus detoxify and drain, it is also imperative to support the actions of the gut, but also to support the integrity of the barrier function in the gut.


       8 The Skin

       The skin forms the second largest surface of our body after the mucosa which is in constant contact with the outside world. Apart from the barrier function, it is also a major detoxifying organ, and has the same P450 system seen in the liver, as well as glutathione to take care of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The skin can absorbmany substances (like pesticides and chemicals in cosmetic products), and has to be able to detoxify them. Another important function of the skin is to protect us against the harmful  UV rays from the sun. The glutathione and other free radical scavengers like catalase and super oxide dismutase are of importance, as they scavenge the free radicals formed by the UV ray exposure. Like in the liver though, induction of the detoxifying P450 pathway will also generate free radicals so that in the presence of toxins the skin is more exposed to the effects of free radicals, which leads to immunotoxicity, tissue destruction and eventually skin ageing as wekk as cabcer. Conversely, UV rays damage the detoxifying ability of the skin (the P450), and sun dam aged skin is thus less able to deal with toxins.

       Due to its role in detoxification, and being one of our most important excretory organs(through sweat and evaporation), we also see the skin often bearing the brunt when other detoxifying organs like the liver are overloaded. Eczema, drug induced rashes and increased sweating are examples of this. In these cases it is thus important to support other organs like the liver for detoxification in skin disease. The liver and skin for instance break down histamine in the body through the P450. If the systems are overloaded, allergy will ensue. Histamine and other amines are also formed during the inflammatory process, and many environmental toxins, like alcoholic drinks, especially red wine can contain a large amount of histamine.


       9 Sweat

       Many non-electrolytes can be partially eliminated via skin by sweat, ethyl alcohol, acetone, phenols, carbon disulphide and chlorinated hydrocarbons.


       10 Hair

       Analysis of hair can be used as an indicator of homeostasis of some physiological substances. Also exposure to some toxins, especially heavy metals, can be evaluated by this kind of bioassay.


       11 Other Routes of Elimination


       Many metals, organic solvents and some organocholrine pesticides(DDT) are secreted via the mammary gland in mother’s milk. This pathway can represent a danger for nursing infants.


       Some drugs and metallic ions can be excreted through the mucosa of the mouth by saliva, for example, lead(“lead line”), mercury, arsenic, copper, as well as bromides, iodides, ethyl alcohol, alkaloids, and so on. The toxins are then swallowed, reaching the GIT, where they can be reabsorbed or eliminated by feces.

























       - Many organs are involved in the storage, metabolism and elimination of toxins once the toxin is absorbed into the body.

       - The liver is one of the major detoxification organs, and plays an especially important role in the processing of toxins being absorbed via the oral route.

       - The liver is well perfused and also equipped with enzymes to render fat soluble toxins to water soluble toxins to be excreted in the kidney and bile.

       - The kidney deals with the above mentioned water soluble toxins, but is also the major organ of elimination dealing with heavy metals and several drugs.

       - The lung play a major role in the elimination of volatile gases, e.g. organic solvents and gases and vapours with high solubility in the blood.

       - The mucous membranes act as a barrier, but also contain the P450 system of enzymes and can actively metabolize and excrete toxins.

       - The symbiotic micro flora plays a special important role here.

       - Sweat, hair, milk and saliva are minor elimination organs, and can be used to test the elimination of toxins such as heavy metals and other toxins.

       - Excretion of toxins in milk pose a risk to the infant.

       - The matrix and also with it the adipose tissue form a major site of deposition of both water and fat soluble toxins, and due to the fact that this is a slow exchange compartment and in close association with the cell, is a major area of concern in chronic intoxication.

       - The lymph system is the only significant way toxins can be drained from this compartment and therefore needs special attention during the drainage process.




























RN13( NeyGeront )


       General Description

       RN13 is designed specifically to treat premature aging and geriatric complaints. It acts on cell respiration and metabolism in organs which are particularly affected by aging, RN13 contains 13 different animal source RNAs, as well as vitamins, amino acids, procaine and glutamic acid and biolecithin to improve cerebral activity. In the body, RNA is responsible for protein biosynthesis, helping to repair and regenerate body tissues and organs, RN13 purports to work on the principle that animal source RNAs from specific organs may stimulate the same organs in humans. RN13 has been shown to make aging individuals more alert and vital and to improve weak concentration, defective memory, anxiety, troubled sleep and lack of appetite.


       Role for Anti-Aging

       RN13’s anti-aging benefits may include prevention and treatment of premature aging and many types of age-related disorders, lifting of apathy and potential increase in lifespan.


       Side Effects/Contraindication

       Side effects are rare but may include mild irritation at the site of an injection and minor allergic reactions such as a skin rash. People suffering disturbances in purine metabolism, should avoid RN13 therapy Antibiotics and drugs that suppress the immune system may inhibit RN13’s efficacy.



       A multi-combination product, of which each capsule contains macromolecular organ substances out of embryo 0.37 ng, placenta 0.1 ng, amnion 6-pg, funiculus umbilical 60 pg, parathyroid 20 pg, testes juv. And fet. 0.2ng; as well as mixture of the following drug additives; heparin 5x10-3 IU, L-glutamic acid 10ug, methenolone acetate 4ng, trijod thyroxin HCL 4pg, vitamin E 40ng, vitamin B12 40ng, vitamin B6 40ng, p-aminobenzoyldiethylaminoethanol HCL (Procaine) 5ng, biolecithin 10mg, trace elements (Fe, Co, Cu, Mg, Zn, Ca) 1.5ng, sodium dodecyl sulfate 15ug, medium chained triglyceride 410mg.


       Distribution ; RN13 is administered by injection and supplemented by ampules or capsules.

       VitOrgan of Germany manufactures RN13 under the trade name NeyGeront.


       Desiccated Glandular Products and RNA Supplementation

       By Phil Micans PharmB


       This article is a synopsis of glandular therapies and treatments that have been a basis of German alternative medicine for a number of years. It is designed to introduce the use of desiccated glandular products and RNA (ribonucleic acid) supplementation (trade name RN13 or NeyGeront). The main clinical studies are based upon Lachnit, Klausner, Proszowski and Rieder’s work entitled Ageing and Disease, A Macromolecular Problem?


       Human Ecosystem


       The desire for health is a basic component of daily language. The German word “Gesundheit” used when someone sneezes means “health”. We wish each other good health on birthdays, for the New Year and many other festive occasions. We are even concerned with our physical well being when we raise a glass to propose a toast, with words such as prost or cheers.


       But things such as the Chernobyl accident, the dying of forests, the ozone gap, climatic catastrophes, the air pollution and pesticides etc are all phenomena of our times that endanger our health. Along with the “Eco-System Earth,” the open system of the “Human Ecosystem” can also lose its balance as well.


       Like all Eco-Systems, the human being achieves stability through the harmonious co-operation of multiple factors. We ard all aware that if the elements air and water are disturbed, plants can no longer live, herbivores can no longer find food and carnivores must then die. The same situation applies to the Human Ecosystem. The repair of individual damaged organs does little good when the organic entirety has to be fortified in its resistance.


       Biomolecular Therapy or BT (consisiting primarily of glandular and RNA Therapy) is a treatment that helps maintain the harmonious co-operation of the Human Ecosystem. The molecular building blocks of nature affect each and every individual cell, they are the basic building blocks of each organism.


       The cell is the smallest, and, at the same time, the most elementary building block in the Human Ecosystem.


       The advantage of BT is that it not only serves to cure existing health defects but it is also suitable for the prevention of illness. And prevention is necessary, for whenever we encounter the so-called routine “complaints” such as; stomach-ache, head-ache, sleeplessness, dysfunction’s of the appetite, or fatigue, the alarm system of the Human Ecosystem has been triggered. We may compare the Human Ecosystem to a mountain lake. Its well balanced ability to function is determined by many factors; the ideal composition of the water, the adequate organisms from fauna and flora, the oxygen content, the nitrogen content and other individual elements.


       Once we introduce pollutants into the lake e.g. waste water or oil, the lake becomes turbid. However, it will use its defense mechanism in order to destroy these elements, and eventually it can recuperate. However, if the limit of pollutants is exceeded, the lake’s defense systems become fundamentally damaged, and thus the entire balance is overthrown.


       In the same way there is a need to strive toward the intact Human Ecosystem. Indeed, we have to act not only to repair but essentially to take precautions and to exercise precaution. Thus, if we can maintain our own Ecosystem and increase our functional capacity, we will boost the activity of individual organs and organic systems as well as increasing witality. The idea behind BT is simple: Biomolecular Therapy utilizes the composition of natural biomolecules for treatment. These building blocks are combined according to the symptoms, the organism receives exactly what it needs and as a result, the Human Ecosystem retains its harmonious balance.

       More than 35 years of research and applications of the BT on a national(Germany) and international basis have demonstrated the high efficacy of this type of therapy, both in children and adults.


       With advancing age, the metabolic activities of the different organic systems become increasingly more sluggish. The elementary building blocks of BT revitalize the metabolism and consequently eliminate any deficiency symptoms, just like they normalize the attrition which aging bodies experience but cannot combat from within.


       One of the theories of aging is based upon the organism’s gradual loss of ability to divide itself. During the course of a human life, a cell divides about 40-50 times, thereby taking care of the continuous renewal of the total organism.


       With BT, the rate of cell division can be increased by 20%. A higher activity of division means; more vitality, more mental flexibility, a higher quality of life and therefore a better enjoyment of life in old age.


       If you are experiencing numerous symptoms and illnesses of various organs or such symptoms are present, you should consider therapy with BT.


       Such an elementary holistic approach makes possible virtually unlimited applications. Most BT revitalization therapies (such as RN13) are used mainly for prevention, whereas other forms of BT glandular therapies, can treat specific diseases either in isolation, or in combination with medications.


       Biomolecular Therapy can naturally harmonize the Human Ecosystem and therefore help to eliminate various disturbances in the individual’s system.


       Biomolecular Principles and History


       Most disease of man and animals are accompanied by particular morphologican and molecular cell changes, some of which are so specific that it its actually impossible to reach a diagnosisi from histological samples alone.


       Clinical chemistry also provides pointers to very specific cell defects. It seems a logical step to reverse these cell defects by supplying the body with the relevant components taken from healthy cells, so that the diseased organs can function properly again. This goes hand in hand with repair and renewal.


       The therapeutic concept of providing sick organs with elements taken from identical healthy organs is not new. It can be traced back to the days of antiquity and also embraces Niehans’ cell therapy and organ lysate therapy.


       Theurer indicated the principle of Biomolecular Therapy (BT) in the early fifties. Theurer was also responsible for endowing this principle with immunological flexibility, thus making it absolutely safe. Theurer realized right from the start that the therapeutic efficacy of organ preparations must be linked to their molecular components; proteins, peptides, lipids and polysaccharides. The nature of the internationally patented method of preparation, the holistic application, and the individual dose titration set this therapy apart from other organ extrac and cell therapy techniques.


       BT makes use of natural regulatory and metabolic substances which are similar in animals and man. Impaired regulatory processes are normalized by physiological means, providing causative support for the recovery process.


       The supporting experimental literature from leading universities, institutes and clinics all over the world is vast and there are countless reports of success in human and veterinary practice.


       It is precisely the causative effect which draws BT so close to the philosophy of the naturopath. Its rule is not to concentrate on curing the symptoms, but to see the body as a whole and to treat its entirety.


       That is why BT does not use just one type of organ, e.g. thymus (which is, of course, very important), but also employs factors from other organs. Monotherapy (with one factor only), cannot do justice to the principle of holistic medicine because pathophysiologica processes are interwoven with the complexity of cybernetic principles.


       Using molecular extracts from healthy tissue for holistic therapy in accordance with immunological and allergic principles means “treating the cause, not just the symptoms.”


       Biomolecular Therapy


       Specifically designed for geriatric disorders, the Biomolecular Therapy of RN13 (which is also known as NeyGeront is a unique combination of macromolecular organo-specific cell extracts from selected healthy young animals and animal fetuses. It is supported by mucleic acids, proteins, polysaccharides and lipids including their molecular subunits and cellular energy transmitters.


       A special cell processing technique was developed so that the presentation forms a soluble agent in the small intestine, this is in order to ensure the bioavailability of the cell elements administered.


       RN13 also contains cell constituents of fresh organ tissues equivalent to those organs most frequently affected by the symptoms of stress, wear and aging like the heart, thymus, gonads, liver, pancreas and other glands, including the mucous membranes and spleen, Furthermore it contains cell factors of total foetus, placenta, amnion and umbilical cored, which have a revitalizing effect on the entire organism. The efficacy of these macromolecular cell extracts have been demonstrated in human cell cultures and confirmed statistically by the results of treatment in patients.


       In addition, the carriedr effect of these organo-specific cell elements is utilized in order to achieve a direct supply of vitamin complexes consisting of vitamins B6m B12 and E, as well as the agents biolecthins, procaine and trace elements for organs showing signs of exhaustion.


       The action of RN13 is therefore based on a two-fold therapeutic mechanism; first, on macromolecules supporting the regeneration and normalization of cell functions and second, on tonics, vitamin complexes, amino acids and biolecthins that have an improving effect, in particular on cerebral activity and deficient cellular metabolism.


       RN13 is therefore recommended for all the following states; general revitalization, premature aging, states of physical and mental exhaustion, defective memory, disturbed potency arteriosclerosis, slow convalescence, difficulty in falling asleep, disturbed development and growth.


       The RN13 capsules should be taken one in the morning and another in the early afternoon.
















Neydin salve




       Neydin salve is an ideal food supplement concentrated from the placenta, embryo, amnion, funiculus umbilicalis.


       It is widely used for life extension and increased sex drive, by stimulating the body grown own production of spermatozoids, and to bring back all of the important rejuvenating hormones, like testosterone, estrogens, progesterone and many more, to a level of a young adolescent.


       Neydin salve can be seen as “the poor man’s “ “Cell Therapy” It keeps you young, fit and energetic. Makes your skin soft and smooth, repairs pimples and other impurities, and gives improved sex life for both sexes.


       Many more indications in which Neydin salve works well, likt the prevention an treatment of osteoporosis(bone decalcification during menopause and in elderly people) and can replace hormone treatment in women.


       It promotes the healing of wounds, speeds up recovery after serious operations and is successfully used in anemia of any origin. The amino acids in Neydin salve slow down the aging process and mental retardation and they improve the memory. They produce proteins and oxygen and therefore have a positive effect on cell metabolism. The tone of the skin is improved, hair growth is stimulated and nails become less porous.


       Moreover, Neydin salve is used in the case of work or sports which demand a high level of physical exertion and in the case of sexual apathy. Some amino acids are known to be good for the defense system and the stimulation of sperm production. Some amino acids stimulate the production of growth hormones, hormones described peviously, which keep a person young. Natural growth hormones decrease as we get older. Around the age of 50 the production stops completely. But with a supplement of amino acids and multivitamins in the right proportion the production of this rejuvenating hormone can be brought back to the level of young adults.


       The composition of Neydin salve is based exclusively on those substances which the placenta, the source of life, produces. Nothing is added.


       The benefit and use of these capsules can be briefly summarized as follows:




       80% of all women have a calcium deficiency. To be able to absorb calcium from calcium tablets, the body has to have sufficient vitamin D. The daily requirement of chemical or foreign calcium is between 800 and 1,200 miligram. The absorption of chemical calcium is mediocre and, if the calcium is taken from bone meal, it contains far too much lead.


       The concentration of natural calcium in Neydin salve is sufficient, combined with a good multivitamin, to prevent and to treat osteoporosis.




       The human iron produced by the placenta is also completely reabsorbed, whereas normally only 8% of all the iron taken in food or food supplements ends up in the blood. Iron increases our resistance, prevents tiredness, promotes growth, remedies anaemia and gives the skin a good tone.




       This is present in every body cell and functions only if there is sufficient vitamin D and calcium. We need phosphorus for normal bone and tooth growth. It produces energy, helps convert fat and starch, reduces pain from arthritis and is good for teeth and gums. The biological phosphorus in Neydin salve is sufficient to supply the daily human requirement of this mineral.




       This is needed to convert iron into haemoglobin, it promotes the effect of tyrosine(the pigment factor for hair and skin) and is essential for the absorption of vitamin C. It produces energy as it promotes the absorption of iron.




       This mineral maintains the enzyme system and the cells and is needed to produce proteins and insulin. It has a favorable effect on the prostate, the production of sperm and brain functions. There is recent evidence that zinc is needed to produce DNA, the main component of chromosomes.


       Vitamin B2


       Otherwise known as Riboflavin. This helps growth and reproduction, gives healthy skin, nails and hair, remedies a dry mouth, improves eyesight and promotes the metabolism of carbohydrates, fat and proteins. Women who are taking the pill, are pregnant or are breast-feeding need increased amounts of vitamin B2.


       Amino acids


       The amino acids in Neydim salve are autologous. The concentration and the ratio are completely physiological, i.e. exactly as the placenta produces them. Some amino acids are not produced by the placenta as certain enzymes needed for this are lacking.


       The amino acids in Neydin salve are at least as important as vitamins, are materials for proteins, the most important nutrient, and can stop the degeneration process. Every cell in our bodies contains proteins and needs these to produce new tissue and repair damaged materials.


       The placenta produces hormones in our body (including the anti-aging growth hormone) as well as HSG, HPL, HCT and HCC, which raise the concentration of ACTH and DHEA in the blood, and thus contribute to maintaining your “Quality of Life”.


       The ex-organ also produces enzymes, retains the balance of the acid/base in the blood and removes waste substances. Proteins are broken down into smaller pieces; amino acids. When these amino acids reach the cells in the body, they are converted back into proteins. Knowledge of this wonderful cycle has resulted in a growing demand for good food supplements with amino acids.


       The various properties of these substances, which are also important genetically, are summarized as follows;




       Strengthens resistance, reduces the chance of kidney stones and helps combat tiredness as a result of too low a glucose content in the blood.




       Produces growth hormones, increases the sperm count and the quality of the sperm, strengthens the immune system and speeds up the healing of wounds. Breaks down body fat and strengthens the muscles. Increases physical and mental alertness.


       Asparagine acid


       Strengthens resistance, increases stamina and removes harmful ammonia.




       Combats depression, suppresses feelings of hunger and sometimes acts as a natural painkiller.


       Glutamine acid


       Improves brain functions, remedies tiredness and promotes the healing of wounds.




       Good for the muscles, blood and reduces too high acidity of the stomach. Helpful in the case of a sluggish hypophysis function.




       Helps in the case of rheumatoid arthritis and stress and raises the libido.




       Increase the ability to concentrate, raises fertility and can help prevent herpes simplex infections.




       Lowers cholesterol levels, helps in the treatment of schizophrenia and

       Parkinson’s disease and reduces the chance of cancer.




       Pain-killer and has a natural anti-psychotic effect.




       Needed for the absorption of proteins via food.




       Reduces feelings of fear, promotes sleep and is used to treat alcoholism and as a natural painkiller.




       Helps in the case of sexual apathy and stress and suppresses feelings of hunger.




       Natural anabolic muscle strengthener, converts fat into muscle.


       Biogenic stimulants and Biomolecular Therapy


       Discovered by Prof. Niehans and occurring as a reaction to “life-threatening circumstances” by living tissue in order to be able to survive. It is the basis of cell therapy according to Prof. Niehans and plays a central role in life-extension therapies. As yet nowhere near everything is known about biogenic stimulants. They are thermostable, contain growth factors in addition to ribonucleic acids and are capable of making the body produce all sorts of important rejuvenating hormones naturally. The placenta, as an autologous basis, is the ideal source for the production of biogenic stimulants for a universal anti-aging effect on the whole body.




       Neydin salve contains in mixture of standardized biomolecular regulation factors of animal origin.


       One Neydin salve capsule contains : Embryo tot.594 mg, Placenta 240 mg, Amnion 180 mg, Funiculus umbilicalis 180 mg, Heparin 5x10(-3) IE, L-Glutamic acid 10 mg, Metenolonacetate 4.0 ng, Procain-HCL 8.00 ng, Biolecithin 10 mg, Trace minerals(Fe, Co, Cu, Mg, Zn, Ca) 1.50 ng, Nadodecylsulfat 15 mcg, Triglycerides 410 mg


       Indication : Premature aging, impotence, age related diseases, skin rejuvenation


       Dosage : Neydin salve capsules are taken once to twice daily half an hour before meals.


       Side effects : There ard usually no side effects.


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